Twenty four Annex 1 signatory countries of the Kyoto Protocol, including Russia, in accordance with the requirements of the International Assessment and Review (IAR) presented their Biennial Reports and answered questions from other delegations. The representative of the Russian Federation Dinara Gershinkova, Deputy Head of Special and Scientific Programmes of Roshydromet, said that in 2012 carbon dioxide (C02) emissions amounted to 68.2% (excluding LULUCF) from the 1990 levels and therefore, the target level of the period of the Kyoto Protocol had been fairly exceeds.
However, the emission level of the year 2012 compared to the year 2000 had increased by 112%. According to the Russian representatives, the low rate of growth in emissions in Russia is the result of the implementation of energy efficiency measures and structural economic reforms. The Russian delegation also reported about the adoption of new legislation to support the development of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures, which is planned to increase by 12% by the year 2020 from the year 2009 level. These include the Ministry of Energy’s policy such as “"Promoting the use of renewable energy in the retail electricity market" and the corresponding amendments made to the federal laws, including the Federal Law for “Electric Power Industry” and for “Energy Saving and Increasing Energy Efficiency.”
The target reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the period until 2020 is formulated as follows: "no more than 75% of the year 1990 level," excluding the LULUCF sector.
The first question was made by the delegation of Brazil: ”What had been done to reverse the growth of emissions that occurred in Russia from 2009 to 2012; What measures are taken to increase the absorption by LULUCF emissions?”
The Russian delegate responded that his happened primarily due to the fact that the uncultivated agricultural land had been reclassified as forest lands and that this was a continuing trend. Russia has adopted a new state program for sustainable forest management from the year 2013 to the year 2020, which includes guidelines for their conservation, protection and cultivation. It is important to recall that Russia has the world’s highest level of deforestation with an annual loss of 4.3 million hectares forest, according to the World Resource Institute.
When asked by Brazil whether Russia intended to use the international emissions markets, the Russia delegate stated that for achieving the 2020 requirements this had not been planned.
The European Union representatives inquired about the 2020 objectives and how these would be obtained. Russian delegation responded that the action plan contains measures on accounting and forecasting of emissions on the national, regional and local levels as well as the implementation of a national emissions trading system.
South Africa asked why, Russia had presented about 40 policies and measures to reduce emissions, but Russia had elaborated in the report only on five and of which only two were termed complete in the form, and only one of them complies with the transparency requirements of the technical review team. Representatives of Russia pointed to the fact that these measures are complex and have been combined and united into a package in the report. "With regard to transparency, we are very sorry, but this was our first report, and nothing is perfect, especially since it is our first report - continued delegate. - For the next report, we will work to improve in terms of transparency."
"How do you hope to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector?" - Asked the negotiators from India. Representatives of Russia explained that the program to increase renewable energy in transport means that the sector will use 35% of its fuel from non-fossil sources (biofuels, electric vehicles).
"You said that local government plays a role in reducing emissions. How does their role differ from that of the federal government? "- enquired the delegation of the Republic of Korea. Russian delegates said that there are good examples in regions that are developing regional strategies for the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency in support of national policies.
China requested whether there would be the introduction of a carbon price and other additional measures before or after 2020. According to the Russian delegation, additional measures such as a carbon tax, emissions trading system, the technology of carbon capture and storage (CCS), and others, are taken into account and assessed for possible implementation after 2020.
Russia concluded with a statement to celebrate the World Environment Day, which is also the Day of Ecology in Russia.
But as a postscript I would like to mention one of the questions made by the Swedish delegate during an online question and answer period in April-May: "The burning of agricultural residues is the cause of soot emissions which have a negative impact on the climate. What does the Russian Federation do to ensure that the ban on burning waste from agriculture is being complied to? "Answer:" In the Russian Federation, the burning of agricultural residues is not performed, so this source of soot emissions is negligible. According to the Rules of fire-prevention regime in the Russian Federation burning of stubble, crop residue and making fires in the fields are prohibited "It must then be the bold black smog from the widespread spring burns, as well as many other thing, we only dream.
The material was prepared by independent observers as part of the project. “